Some people probably survived in escape pods or shuttles, it would be easy to write that in if you wanted to bring a character back. It's plausible that Nero would not have taken the time to pursue individual escape pods. His objective was to destroy Vulcan. Pursuing tiny little escape pods/shuttles would have wasted time when Nero had no idea whether or not other reinforcements would be arriving. I think you could plausibly say he ignored the escape pods in favor of going after Vulcan.
On the other hand, you could argue that the other ships were destroyed so quickly no one had time to escape.